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Working with PHP Include()

Posted by Mike Steward Articles | PHP December 07, 2011
Here you will learn how to insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file using the include() or require() functions before the server executes it.
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Hi guys, in this article we are going to understand how to include another file in PHP. First of all, we need to understand the concept of Including a file; you can insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file before the server executes it, with the include() or require() function. The whole process is done under XAMPP server.

The Two functions are identical

  • include() generates a warning, but the script will continue execution.
  • require() generates a fatal error, and the script will stop.

include() function in PHP

The functionality of the include function is like it involves to take all the content in a specified file and includes it in the current file. This function is used to generates a warning, but the script will continue execution.

Let us understand the concept with the some example to clarify the function, consider  that you have a standard header file, called "function.php". To include the header file in a page, use the include() function.

<html>
<
body bgcolor="pink">
<h3>WORLD CRICKET BIGGEST EXCITEMENT<h3><hr />
<?php
function writeName()
{
echo "India vs Australia";
}
echo "Upcoming Tour : ";
writeName();
?>
</body>
</html>

Saved it as function.php

Now the script given below is the implementation part of the include() function

<html>
<
body>
<?php include("function.php"); ?> // This is include function that is using the function.php
<h1>Welcome to Sports page!</h1>
<
p>Former Australian wicketkeeper-batsman Adam Gilchrist expects the forthcoming India-Australia Test series to be an exciting affair. However, he refuses to predict the outcome of the much-awaited series, starting with the Boxing Day Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.</p>
<
p>Former Pakistan skipper Wasim Akram is baffled by the Indian selection committee's decision to opt for Abhimanyu Mithun over an in-form Irfan Pathan for the much-awaited upcoming tour of Australia.</p>
</
body>
</html>

Output of the above php script

Open XAMPP server them run the services Apache & MySQL. Type http://localhost/yourfoldername/include.php on your browser.

y1.gif

require() function in PHP

The functionality of require function  is identical to include(), except that it handles errors differently. This function is used to generates a fatal error, and the script will stop.

Error handing by require() & include()

Firstly, we will understand that how will the include() tackle with errors, if we run the php script on the browser it will display output with warnings. Let us see that whole concept with example.

<html>
<
body>
<?php include("wrongfile.php"); ?> // This is include function that show output with warnings.
<h1>Welcome to Sports page!</h1>
<
p>Former Australian wicketkeeper-batsman Adam Gilchrist expects the forthcoming India-Australia Test series to be an exciting affair. However, he refuses to predict the outcome of the much-awaited series, starting with the Boxing Day Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.</p>
<
p>Former Pakistan skipper Wasim Akram is baffled by the Indian selection committee's decision to opt for Abhimanyu Mithun over an in-form Irfan Pathan for the much-awaited upcoming tour of Australia.</p>
</
body>
</html>

saved it by include.php

Output

Open XAMPP server the run the services Apache & MySQL. Type http://localhost/yourfoldername/include.php on your browser.


y2.gif

Secondly, same concept with require(), if we run the above script with require() we will find some difference from above output, difference is that
if we run the include.php script on the browser it will only display warning & fatal errors, not the output.

<html>
<
body>
<?php require("wrongfile.php"); ?> // This is require function that show warning & fatal error only not output.
<h1>Welcome to Sports page!</h1>
<
p>Former Australian wicketkeeper-batsman Adam Gilchrist expects the forthcoming India-Australia Test series to be an exciting affair. However, he refuses to predict the outcome of the much-awaited series, starting with the Boxing Day Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.</p>
<
p>Former Pakistan skipper Wasim Akram is baffled by the Indian selection committee's decision to opt for Abhimanyu Mithun over an in-form Irfan Pathan for the much-awaited upcoming tour of Australia.</p>
</
body>
</html>

Output

Open XAMPP server the run the services Apache & MySQL. Type http://localhost/yourfoldername/include.php on your browser.

y3.gif

The given statement is not executed, because the script execution stopped after the fatal error.

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