This article is about understanding the working concept
of destructor in VB.NET. I know you all may be thinking why a dedicated article
on simple destructor phenomenon. As you read this article you will understand
how different is VB.NETdestructor are when compared to C++ destructors.
In simple terms a destructor is a member that implements the actions required to
destruct an instance of a class. The destructors enable the runtime system, to
recover the heap space, to terminate file I/O that is associated with the
removed class instance, or to perform both operations. For better understanding
purpose I will compare C++ destructors with VB.NETdestructors.
Generally in C++ the destructor is called when objects
gets destroyed. And one can explicitly call the destructors in C++. And also the
objects are destroyed in reverse order that they are created in. So in C++ you
have control over the destructors.
One may be thinking how VB.NETtreats the destructor. In
VB.NET, you can never call them, the reason is one cannot destroy an object. So
who has the control over the destructor (in VB.NET)? it's the .Net frameworks
Garbage Collector (GC).
Now few questions arise why GC should control
destructors why not us?
The answer is very simple GC can do better object release than we can. If we do
manual memory management one has to take care both allocation and de-allocation
of memory. So there is always chance that one can forgot de-allocation. And also
manual memory management is time consuming and complex process. So lets
understand why VB.NET forbids you from explicitly writing code for
- If we are accessing unmanaged code usually we forget to destroy an object. This avoids the destructor call and memory occupied by the object will never get released. Let examine this case by taking example, Below figure shows that Memory stacks in which application XYZ loads an unmanaged code of 30 bytes. When applications XYZ ends imagine it forgot to do destroy an object in Unmanaged code so what happens is Application XYZ memory gets deallocated back to the heap but unmanaged code remains in memory. So Memory gets wasted.
- If we are trying to release the object while object is still doing some process or i mean object is still active.
- If we are trying to release the object that is already been released.
So lets see how GC will handle above situations:
- If program ends GC automatically reclaims all the memory occupied by the objects in the program.
- GC keeps tracks of all the objects and ensures that each object gets destroyed once.
- GC ensures that objects, which are being referenced, are not destroyed.
- GC destroys the objects only when necessary. Some situations of necessity are memory is exhausted or user explicitly calls System.GC.Collect() method.
Understanding the complete working of Garbage collector
(GC) is a big topic. But I will cover the some its details with respect to our
topic. GC is a .net framework thread, which runs when needed or when other
threads are in suspended mode. So first GC creates the list of all the objects
created in the program by traversing the reference fields inside the objects.
This list helps the GC to know how many objects it needs to keep track. Then it
ensures that there are no circular references inside this list. In this list GC
then checks for all the objects, which have destructor, declared and place them
in another list called Finalization List.
So now GC creates two threads one, which are reachable
list and another unreachable, or finalization List. Reachable objects are
cleared one by one from the list and memory occupied by these objects are
reclaimed back. The 2nd thread, which reads the finalization lists and calls,
the each object finalized in separate object.
Lets see how VB.NET compiler understands the destructor
code. Below is a small class created in visual studio .Net, I have created a
class called class1 which has a constructor and a destructor.
Public Sub New()
End Sub 'New
Overloads Overrides Sub Finalize()
End Sub 'Finalize
'Entry point which delegates
to C-style main Private Function
Public Overloads Shared Sub Main()
Overloads Shared Sub
Main(ByVal args() As String)
Dim c As New Class1
End Sub 'Main
End Class 'Class1
End Namespace 'ConsoleApplication3
So after compiling the code open the assemblies in ILDASM.EXE (Microsoft
Dissembler Tool) tool and see the IL code. You will see something-unusual code.
In above code the compiler automatically translates a destructor into an
override of the Object.Finalize() method. In other words, the compiler
translates the following destructor:
Overrides Sub Finalize()
End Sub 'Finalize
End Class 'Class1Into following:
|In Source Code Format|| In IL Code Format|
Overrides Sub Finalize () '
End Sub 'Finalize
End Class 'Class1
|.method family hidebysig virtual instance void |
Finalize() cil managed
// Code size 10 (0xa)
IL_0000: leave.s IL_0009
} // end .try
IL_0003: call instance void [mscorlib]System.Object::Finalize()
} // end handler
} // end of method Class1::Finalize
The compiler-generated Finalize method contains the
destructor body inside try block, followed by a finally block that calls the
base class Finalize. This ensures that destructors always call its base class
destructor. So our conclusion from this is Finalize is another name for
destructors in C#.
Points to remember
- Destructors are invoked automatically, and cannot be invoked explicitly.
- Destructors cannot be overloaded. Thus, a class can have, at most, one destructor.
- Destructors are not inherited. Thus, a class has no destructors other than the one, which may be declared in it.
- Destructors cannot be used with structs. They are only used with classes.
- An instance becomes eligible for destruction when it is no longer possible for any code to use the instance.
- Execution of the destructor for the instance may occur at any time after the instance becomes eligible for destruction.
- When an instance is destructed, the destructors in its inheritance chain are called, in order, from most derived to least derived.