There are mainly 5 types of validation controls are there and 1 control is to summarize the validation errors.
1. RequiredFieldValidator - to check for mandatory field
2.RangeValidator - to check for data in the specified range
3. RegularExpressionValidator - to check for data in a particular regular expression
4. ComapreValidator - to compare two data or data types
5. CustomValidator - to attach a custom a control with the help of user defined function
6.ValidationSummary - to summarize all validation error.