Middleware in ASP.NET Core and How to Create Your Own?


ASP.NET Core is a powerful framework that allows developers to build robust and scalable web applications. One of its key features is middleware, which plays a crucial role in handling HTTP requests and responses. Middleware sits between the client and the server, enabling developers to add custom logic to the request processing pipeline.

What is Middleware?

Middleware, in the context of ASP.NET Core, refers to a series of components that are invoked in the request pipeline to handle requests and responses. Each middleware component processes an HTTP request, performs specific tasks, and then either passes the request to the next middleware or generates a response.

Middleware in the Request Pipeline

The request pipeline in ASP.NET Core consists of a sequence of middleware components. When a request is received by the server, it goes through this pipeline, and each middleware component can.

  1. Handle the Request: Perform operations such as logging, authentication, authorization, etc.
  2. Process the Response: Modify the response before sending it back to the client.

Creating Custom Middleware

Creating custom middleware in ASP.NET Core allows developers to add their own logic to the request processing pipeline. Here's a step-by-step guide to creating custom middleware.

Step 1. Create a Middleware Class

Create a class that contains the middleware logic. This class should have a method that adheres to the RequestDelegate signature, which is responsible for processing the request and invoking the next middleware in the pipeline.

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class CustomMiddleware
    private readonly RequestDelegate _next;

    public CustomMiddleware(RequestDelegate next)
        _next = next;

    public async Task InvokeAsync(HttpContext context)
        // Logic before the next middleware
        await _next(context);
        // Logic after the next middleware

Step 2. Configure Middleware in Startup.cs

In the Configure method of Startup.cs, add your custom middleware using the UseMiddleware extension method.

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)
    // Other middleware configurations

Step 3. Implement Middleware Logic

Within the InvokeAsync method of your custom middleware, you can implement your desired logic before and after invoking the next middleware. This can include authentication, logging, modifying request/response, etc.

Use Cases of Custom Middleware

Custom middleware can be used for various purposes, such as.

  • Authentication: Implement custom authentication logic before passing the request to the application.
  • Logging: Log request details or errors for debugging purposes.
  • Caching: Implement caching mechanisms to improve application performance.
  • Response Modification: Modify the response before sending it back to the client.


Middleware in ASP.NET Core is a powerful mechanism that allows developers to customize the request pipeline. Creating custom middleware provides flexibility in handling requests and responses, enabling developers to add their own logic seamlessly into the application flow. By understanding and leveraging middleware, developers can enhance the functionality, performance, and security of their ASP.NET Core applications.