Learn About Pug In Node.js

Pug is a template engine for node.js, Use of pug is to inject the data and convert it into html,.

Introduction
 
In this article we are going to learn about what the pug template engine in node.js is, and how we can get started with it.
 
Pug in node.js is a template engine that uses case sensitive syntax to generate html, in other words it returns a string of html rendered as per data specified in a pug file.
 
We can say that pug is the middleman who plays a role to convert the injected data and translate it into html syntax. 
 
The syntax of pug makes it a very clean and effective structure, but beware of the extra spaces because one extra space may change your html markup structure completely.
 
For more reference about pug you can go through their official docs site.
Let's see pug as a template engine in node.js in a brief example.  
 
Table of contents
  • Installation 
  • Simple hello world program
  • Comments
  • Simple text 
  • Attributes
  • Include
  • Code
  • Conditions
  • Iterations
Installation
 
Installation of pug is a really straightforward process, to get started  there is a npm package available called pug. 
 
You can install and use pug as described below.
 
Prerequisites
  • Latest version of Node.js
  • Any code editor like Sublime, Vs code etc.   
To get started with pug, we need to install pug by executing the given npm command.
  1. npm install pug  
Also we need to install pug-cli to execute the pug files code separately by using given npm command.
  1. npm install pug-cli@1.0.0-alpha1 -g  
After installing pug, we can check if the pug is installed or not using --help command.
  1. pug --help   
So far we have installed all the related dependencies, now we are ready to write code using pug.
 
Simple Hello World Program using Pug
 
Note
extension of Pug file will be ".pug".
 
First step is to open your favorite editor and create a new file by giving an appropriate name like hellopug.pug.
 
Now open hellopug.pug, and write simple code as given below.
  1. doctype  
  2. html  
  3.     head  
  4.         title  Welcome To C#Corner
  5.     body  
  6.         h1 Welcome To C#Corner  
As you can see in the above snippet, I have written simple html markups like html, head, and body which we use normally in our website. But with different indented space as per the structure of an html.
 
Its time to see the compiled pug file as below using the command window just like described below. 
  1. pug helloworld.pug  
After executing the above command, you can see the message like the below image.
 
 
 
As the command line says, our pug file is now rendered and we can see the rendered page as html file. 
 
After completion of all above operations, we can now see the generated html file from pug file which looks exactly like a traditional html file. 
 
 
Here is the converted html code which was generated from pug file syntax, and got the same output as expected.
 
 
So at the end of pug file compilation, output will be converted to html itself. This is how we have developed a simple demo using pug.js. 
 
Comments 
 
Comments are used to explain the code or you can say for what purpose the code was written and help us when re-working the same code.
 
Comments in pug syntax are very simple to use as described below.
 
Single line comment 
  1. // This is single line comment  
As you can see two slashes will be used as comments, and also appear at HTML DOM level. 
 
And if you don't want your comments to appear as a part of dom just use [-] hyphen after slash like the below line of code.
  1. //- This is single line comment  
Multi line or Block of Comment
 
You can specify comments for specific blocks of lines.
  1. doctype  
  2. html   
  3. //    
  4.     head  
  5.         title Welcome To C#Corner  
  6.       
  7.     body  
  8.         h1 Welcome To C#Corner  
Here I'm commenting my snippet from the head part onwards, so during inspecting elements you can see output like below.
 
 
Working with simple text 
 
Sometime we need to have some static or plain text to just show something for a specific reason, so we can use the same with pug also. 
 
Using piped text to render static text,
  1. | This is <b>plain text</b>  
With html inline tag,
  1. P This is plain text with p tag  
And you can see rendered output of an html file.
 
 
 
Attributes 
 
Attributes in pug looks similar to Html controls, but with a different syntax to be rendered into html.
 
Let's see the practical implementation of how attributes work in pug.js.
 
For that you just need to paste your code into the editor and execute it.
  1. doctype  
  2. html   
  3.     head  
  4.         title Welcome To C#Corner  
  5.         style  
  6.             include styles.css  
  7.     body  
  8.   
  9.         div(id="MyDiv",class="bordered")   
  10.             h1 C#Corner  
  11.             br  
  12.             input(id="txt1",value="manav")  
  13.             br  
  14.             h3(style={color:"red"}) MANAV   
  15.           
Just focus on the div tag where actually I have provided different attributes, like id, class etc. So this is how you can provide the attributes to the html controls into pug.
 
A point to note here is that I have used the "include" section where I have used external css file styles.css for styling purposes. 
 
If you run the above snippet in the browser, you can get output like the below image.
 
 
The above demo is for single attribute, but in the same way we can provide multiple attributes as well like the below code snippet.
  1. div(  
  2.        id="MyDivision",  
  3.     class="demo"  
  4. ) Manav  
In the same way assign id and class, using the syntax using hash(#) and (.)dot.
  1. p#id1 Inline Id  
  2. p.class1 Inline Class  
So these all are simple examples, you can expand functionalities as per your requirement.
 
Include 
 
Include functionality in pug is used to add external pug file content into the current file, like we need to use external stylesheet or any other files we want to use with our pug files. 
 
Just like we normally use header or footer parts for multiple pages, it make reusability of an element or a block.
 
For including any files you just need to use "include" keyword, after that you can specify the file name.
 
I have developed a simple example of the header, content and the footer reusable code as below snippet.
  1. doctype  
  2. html  
  3.     head   
  4.         style  
  5.             styles.css  
  6.     body  
  7.         include header.pug  
  8.   
  9.         h1 This is content part  
  10.   
  11.         include footer.pug  
We have used header, content and footer part, at last we have full html page structure to be generated.
 
Rendered html content will look like below image. 
 
 
Code  
 
In pug there is a functionality to write javascript code, as we generally need to do within <script> block like for(), foreach() etc.
  1. doctype  
  2. html  
  3.     body  
  4.         - for(let i =0 ;i < 5 ;i++)  
  5.             p= i  
Execute it and you can see the value of a loop will be incremented.
 
 
Condition 
 
If you want to perform some conditional statements than you may get the advantage of condition in pug in a very easy manner as described below.
  1. doctype  
  2. html  
  3.     body  
  4.         - var a = 10   
  5.         #a  
  6.         if a < 10  
  7.             p Value is Not less than 10  
  8.         else if a < 5  
  9.             p Value is Not less than 5  
  10.         else  
  11.             p Value is 10  
So based on variable a, conditions will be compared and generated as per matching condition.
 
 
Iteration
 
Generally the pugjs which supports two types of iteration are.
  1. each
  2. while
each
 
If you want to iterate over array or collection you can use the syntax of a pug for iteration just like the given snippet. 
  1. doctype  
  2. html  
  3.     body  
  4.         - TempOptions = [ 'one' , 'two' , 'three' ]  
  5.         each data in TempOptions  
  6.             p= data  
And the rendered html output looks like the below image.
 
 
While
 
While iternation is prettystraight forward as we have used in other programming languages.
  1. doctype  
  2. html  
  3.     body  
  4.         - MyData = 0  
  5.         div  
  6.             while MyData < 5  
  7.                 p= MyData++  
After that you can see the result is something like below.
 
 
This is how you can use each and while iteration in a pugjs. 

Conclusion
 
In this article, I have explained the basic installation part, and a few important concepts to get started with pugjs with node.js in an easy manner. After doing all the above stuff, you will be able to create whole html pages and websites as well. 
 
Follow my other node.js articles.
I hope you have learned and enjoyed pug as template engine. Thanks for reading.