Learning JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)


JDBC is a technology to establish communication between a java program and a DBMS. It uses SQL (structured query language) for storing, updating, or removing data from a DBMS. The java program can be a stand-alone application, a web application or an enterprise application. The DBMS can be of any type, such as Oracle, SQL Server or MS Access.

Driver Manager

This is an application available to the Java virtual machine for recognizing an appropriate driver from the list. The java program has to supply the path of a driver to the driver manager for its initialization. This is an interface between the java program and the DBMS. It provides a set of drivers for communicating with various types of DBMS. These are available in a package as ODBC (open database connective).  The JDK provides a driver to communicate with the ODBC. The combination of these two drivers is known as the JDBC.ODBC bridge driver. This is also known as the default driver. A java program may use some explicit JDBC driver available from DBMS vendors or any other external company. These drivers are divided into three different types as type-2, type-3, and type-4.
Type 2 Drivers - the Native-API Driver
The JDBC type 2 drivers, also known, as the Native-API driver is a database driver. The driver converts JDBC method calls into native calls to the database API. The type 2 drivers are not written entirely in Java as it interfaces with non-Java code that makes the final database calls.
Type 3 Drivers - the Network-Protocol Driver
The JDBC type 3 driver, also known as the network-protocol driver is a database driver implementation which makes use of a middle-tier between the calling program and the database. The middle-tier (application server) converts JDBC calls directly or indirectly into the vendor-specific database protocol.
Type 4 Drivers - the Native-Protocol Driver
The JDBC type 4 drivers, also known as the native-protocol driver is a database driver implementation that converts JDBC calls directly into the vendor-specific database protocol. The type 4 drivers are written completely in Java and are hence platform independent. It is installed inside of the Java Virtual Machine of the client. It provides better performance over the type 1 and 2 drivers, as it does not have the overhead of converting calls into ODBC or database API calls.
Steps to follow for connecting to a DBMS
  1. Load the driver class into the runtime environment by using the forName() method of java.lang class. This method accepts a string parameter which contains the class name. This method throws a java.lang class not found exception. The class is a predefined class and forName is the static method of the class, which is used to load the driver into memory for connectivity.

    Ex:- Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver")
  2. Create a reference of java.sql.connection by using the getConnection() method of the java.sql.DriverManager class. This method needs three parameters, including the path of the driver in JDBC:ODBC bridge. It also requires the DSN(Data source name) in the position below. The DSN can be created in control panel

    Ex: Connection con=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:dsnname","system","password");

    The getConnection() method throws a java.sql.sql exception.

What is DSN?

This is a name provided to the DBMS driver present in ODBC. This recognizes the database to be used of a specific DBMS.
Creation of DSN(database source name) for Oracle
Go to Start-Control panelAdministrative Tools- Data Sources (ODBC)-go to system dsn tab-click add button-select a driver for which you want to set up a data source (for Oracle- Oracle in XE)-select it and click finish-give any name in the data source name textbox-then click ok button.
Create an instance of java.sql statement by using create statement () method of connection. The statement is being used to execute various sql commands.
Ex:- Statement stmt=con.createStatement();
Use an appropriate method of statement to execute SQL commands. For the select command, use the executeQuery() method and for insert, update, and delete use the executeUpdate() method.
execute()- is for invoking the functions or stored procedures of SQL by the CallableStatement.
executeUpdata()- is for the operations such as insert,update or delete on SQL by Statement ,PreparedStatement.
executeQuery() - is for operation select of Sql by PreparedStatement or Statement.
Example:- To display data from a database through JDBC and show the ouput in the console.
  1. Create table employee (empno int,empname varchar(50)) 
  1. Insert into employee values (1,'Raj')  
  2. Insert into employee values (2,'Ravi')  
  3. Insert into employee values (3,'Rahul')  
jdbcconnection.java file
  1. /*This uses Oracle through a DSN */  
  2. import java.sql.*;  
  3. public class jdbcconnection   
  4. {  
  5.  public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception   
  6.  {  
  7.   //Step-1    
  8.   //load the class for driver    
  9.   Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver");  
  10.   //Step -2    
  11.   Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:dsn1""system""pintu");  
  12.   //Step -3    
  13.   System.out.println("Connected to database");  
  14.   Statement stmt = con.createStatement();  
  15.   //Step-4    
  16.   ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("select * from employee");  
  17.   //Fetching data from ResultSet and display    
  18.   while (rs.next())   
  19.   {  
  20.    //to fetch value from a column having number type of value    
  21.    int y = rs.getInt("empno");  
  22.    //to fetch value from a column having varchar/text type of value    
  23.    String x = rs.getString("empname");  
  24.    System.out.println(y + " " + x);  
  25.   }  
  26.   //Step-5    
  27.   con.close();  
  28.  }  
  29. }   
Javac jdbcconnection.java
Java jdbcconnection

JDBC statements

They are of three types
  1. Statement
  2. Prepared statement
  3. Callable statement
Statement interface-The createStatement() method is useful to create a statement object and to execute simple queries.  The statement interface fires Static queries.
Prepared Statement interface-It is derived from the Statement interface. The prepare statement() method is used to a create prepared statement object and used to execute queries with unknown parameters or wherein the parameters are provided at the run-time. A Prepared Statement is used to send SQL Statements to the Database It not only contains the SQL Statement, but also the precompiled SQL Statement. It means that when the Prepared Statement is executed, the DBMS just run the SQL Statement without compiling it. Prepare statement is the type of statement used to interact with the database. To avoid syntactical complexities it's the better approach (eg: double quotes used with query strings).
We can insert many rows using a single prepared statement
String str="insert into table values ("?,?,?")";
PreparedStatement stmt=con.prepareStatement (str);
It will execute before commit SQL query and also execute multiple select statements, it will save time, faster execution. The PreparedStatement interface fires Dynamic queries.
Ex:- To insert a record into a table using PreparedStatement
Table Creation
  1. create table employee(empno int,empname varchar(50),sal int)  
  1. /*To insert record into a table by using PreparedStatement*/  
  2. import java.sql.*;  
  3. import java.util.*;  
  4. public class prepareDemo  
  5. {  
  6.  public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception   
  7.  {  
  8.   Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver");  
  9.   Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:dsn1""system""pintu");  
  10.   //step-1 -Reference creation of PreparedStatement    
  11.   PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("insert into employee(empno,empname,sal) values(?,?,?)");  
  12.   //step -2 reading from console and providing into sql    
  13.   Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);  
  14.   System.out.print("Enter the Employee Number : ");  
  15.   int empno = sc.nextInt();  
  16.   System.out.print("Enter the Employee Name : ");  
  17.   String empname = sc.next();  
  18.   System.out.print("Enter the Employee's salary : ");  
  19.   int sal = sc.nextInt();  
  20.   pstmt.setInt(1, empno);  
  21.   pstmt.setString(2, empname);  
  22.   pstmt.setInt(3, sal);  
  23.   //step-3    
  24.   pstmt.executeUpdate();  
  25.   System.out.println("record inserted");  
  26.   con.close();  
  27.  }  
  28. }   
Javac prepareDemo.java
Java prepareDemo
jdbc with RDBMS 
CallableStatement interface-It is derived from the prepared statement interface and helpful in executing stored procedures.prepareCall() method is used to create the callable statement object.
It is an interface in JDBC API, which can be used to calling the stored procedures and functions in the backend like oracle, Sybase.
CallableStatement cst=con.prepareCall("{call <procedure name>(?,?)}");
Ex:- To insert the record into a table by using CallableStatement
Table Creation
  1. create table employee(empno int,empname varchar(50),sal int)  
Store procedure
  1. Create or replace procedure addemp(no number,nm varchar,s number)  
  2. as  
  3. begin  
  4. insert into employee(empno,empname,sal) values(no,nm,s);  
  5. end;  
callableDemo.java file 
  1. /*To use CallableStatement */  
  2. import java.sql.*;  
  3. import java.util.*;  
  4. public class callableDemo   
  5. {  
  6.  public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception   
  7.  {  
  8.   Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver");  
  9.   Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:dsn1""system""pintu");  
  10.   //Step-1    
  11.   CallableStatement cstmt = con.prepareCall("call addemp(?,?,?)");  
  12.   Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);  
  13.   System.out.print("Enter the Employee No: ");  
  14.   int x = sc.nextInt();  
  15.   System.out.print("Enter the Employee Name: ");  
  16.   String str = sc.next();  
  17.   System.out.println("Enter the Salary: ");  
  18.   String j = sc.next();  
  19.   //Step-2    
  20.   cstmt.setInt(1, x);  
  21.   cstmt.setString(2, str);  
  22.   cstmt.setString(3, j);  
  23.   //Step -3    
  24.   cstmt.execute();  
  25.   System.out.println("***Procedure called****");  
  26.   System.out.println("Record Sucessfully Inserted");  
  27.   con.close();  
  28.  }  
  29. }   
Javac callableDemo.java
Java callableDemo
RDBMS with jdbc 

Advantages of JDBC

JDBC is used to Provide Database Connectivity from java to a database. Using Java Database Connectivity We can update/retrieve data to/from databases with java programs

Disadvantages of JDBC

  1. JDBC is not easy if it is used in large projects. There is a big programming overhead.
  2. The programmer must hardcode the Transactions and concurrency code in the application.
  3. Handling the JDBC connections and properly closing the connection is also a big issue. Properly closing the connection is a must.
  4. JDBC is not good for big applications

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