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Robotics & Hardware

Robots: Smart Humans

By Sonakshi Singh on Dec 08 2011
Robots are nothing but a combination of designing and constructing ideas. Robots can be fixed as well as mobile; Fixed Robots are widely used in industrial applications but with the advancement of technology.
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Technology is a kind of a Web built by threads of Hardware and software. To create a new thing whether it is an invention or designing we take help of so many technologies which is created by logic.These logic include computer as well as electronics programming.

We first set a plan or idea to perform anything and then keeping that task in mind we take actions. Deciding new plans come under planning technique.

Robots are another example of technology.

 Robots are nothing but a combination of designing and constructing ideas. Robots can be fixed as well as mobile; Fixed Robots are widely used in industrial applications but with the advancement of technology.

Classes of Robots: Robots are classified into several classes-Robot Manipulators, Fixed and Mobile.

Robot Manipulators : A manipulator is a kind of device which is used to manipulate things without any direct Contact. They do it by using their Arms. Arm is nothing but a of a chain of rigid bodies which are interconnected by joints, basically it is a kinematic chain which is in series. The kinematic chain can be open or closed depends on its structure.

If it is a series of chain which has two ends it would be considered as Open whereas a closed loop of chains will lead to a Closed structure. Earlier they were used in inaccessible places but recently we have started using them in other places like Medical field(where they assist in surgery) and Space also.

Fixed Robots : Fixed robots has a fixed base, these robots as we have already discuss has a very vast application in industrial areas as well. So we can categorize some of them as industrial robots also.

The fixed robots are generally attached to the table or stand in a definite position . Fixed robots are rich in features.

Mobile Robots : The very basic feature of the mobile robots is the presence of a mobile base which makes it capable to move freely in the surroundings, there are different forms of mobile robots, can be differential drive or Synchro-drive, tricycle robots  or car like mobile robots are also very common. These robots are mainly used in service applications motion capabilities are required.

Components of Robotic System

Robot is a combination of Actuators, sensors and controller. Actuators convert stored energy into kinetic energy. We generally used electrical motors. Although D.c motors are used in Portable Robots but in Industrial Robots we preferred to use AC motors.

Nowadays we use chemical and compressed air actuators as well. Air muscles which is an another kind of actuator are also used as artificial muscles. These are special tubes which gets contract when air is forced into them. In another kind of wire we use electricity instead of air. But that is used in small applications.

Power Source has a significant role in the working of Robotics, generally Lead-acid batteries are used but we other potential power sources we use gases on compressed phenomena and hydraulics as well, organic waste material can also be used.

As a Robotic system is a closed system hence a Feedback is also used in the whole system. As we can see in the above diagram that sensors are used at the place of feedback component. These sensors can be IR,Pressure,Light and temperature.

The function of sensory system is to acquire data on the internal and external status; it is so obvious that regarding internal status we consider the manufacturing part while as external status, surroundings is considered. Examples are position transducers and cameras. While constructing any robot a Planning and plotting is done.

This comes under Planning Technique. After planning the goals several actions has to take to fulfill those goals which comes under the functioning of control system.  Now what control system does, It controls the action in respect to the goals which are set under planning process.



Industrial-Robots : When we talk about industrial Robots we talk about a big contribution by these smart human beings. An Industrial Robot is an automatically controlled and reprogrammable device.

The early industrial Robots were developed in 1960sThe early industrial robots were developed in the 1960s,  under the Technologies of Numerical Control Machines for Precise Manufacturing and Tele-operators for handling of Radioactive material.

These industrial applications are used in areas of painting,Welding,assembling parts in shifting objects from one place to another. Due to their properties of  high Precision and speed they are also used in product Testing as well.

Why Robots so Popular in Industries..?

Robots reduce the manufacturing costs, they work on the proper programming therefore provides accuracy in giving outputs. Not only this, use of Robots in industries increases productivity.

Improves product quality and yes we can use them continuously without facing any fall in their performance.

Conclusion : Robots has made work and hence life easier. In earlier days they were used only in some selective areas but now they are being used in other applications also, we can find them in hospital's operation theaters helping doctors in performing critical operations; it would definitely be a very different feeling to see saving life of a master by its own creation. Although use of Robots is advantageous till it does.

Though robots has some disadvantages also such as High start-up cost, absence of sensitivity plus they are also responsible for reducing labor but increased the job opportunities in field of engineering and technologies at the same time.

Thus use of Robots is advantageous till they do not violate the natural laws which says that it should not harm human beings or allow human beings to come to harm anyone and must obey his master's orders.