Typescript Fundamentals

In this article you will learn about some fundamentals of Typescript.

What is Typescript?

 
Maintaining a huge code in JavaScript is extremely difficult.
 
In today’s scenario, we write a lot of JavaScript code for a better UI experience and use JS frameworks like Angular, Backbone, and Knockout. Writing client-side code in typescript can significantly reduce the maintenance cost of your project and helps a C# developer to write javascript code.
 

Key features of Typescript

  • TypeScript is a free and open-source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft
  • It is a superset of JavaScript. So you can write javascript code in typescript.
     
    Today’s browsers support ES 5 (Ecma script 5, which is the current standard of writing javascript).
     
    standard
  • Enables static typing and class-based object-oriented programming to javascript.
  • Another key feature is that Angular 2 is written in typescript.
    (Ref – Wikipedia) 
Supported Editors We can write typescript using any one of the below editors.
  • VisualStudio.
  • Node.js
  • SublimeEditor
  • TypeScript play ground

How typescript works

 
Typescript compiler converts code written in typescript to javascript,
 
code  code  code
 
Understand the code
 
I am using VS 2013 editor for this sample code. Any Visual Studio version 2013 (with update 2) and above comes with a built-in Typescript compiler. Install “WebEssentials” for additional support of typescript in visual studio.
 
Open Visual Studio 2013, create a new project, select ASP.NET Empty Web Application.
 
Web Application
 
Add an HTML page in the solution.
 
HTML page
 
Add a typescript file in the project and name it typescriptDemo.ts (*.ts is the extension of typescript files).
 
Add
 
Open “typescriptDemo.ts” in visual studio, and create a Movie class, with a constructor that takes the movie “name” as a parameter and have a function “Play()”.
 
code
 
In this code, you can see that we have specified that the movie name should be of type string and its constructor expects a string type input. This is another benefit of using Typescript, it supports compile-time type safety. Now if you try to pass a number in the object of “Movie” class then you will get below warning immediately.
 
code
 
Now save this typescriptDemo.ts file and it will generate a javascript file with the same name as typescriptDemo.js. You have to manually include this file into the project because the “TSC” compiler generates *.js file when you save *.ts file.
 
Below is the javascript code generated by the “TSC” compiler.
 
code
 
Add “typescriptDemo.js” in the Index.html page and browse it. You will see an alert message coming on page load. Now enjoy writing javascript with OOP’s features.
 
Explore more with Typescript’s official site.
 
Try Playground.