Data Mining Techniques in the Healthcare Decision System

Introduction

 
 
In the last decade, various methods have been used to explore and find patterns and relationships in healthcare data. But from the last few years, data mining was exploring more in the sector of health. As data mining showed some promise in the use of its predictive techniques to improve the delivery of human services. As the Big Data movement has gained momentum over the past few years, Organizations are taking interest in the use of various techniques and methods to analyze the big data related to health issues. We study different techniques & applications for the evaluation of hospitals, relationship with patients & their treatment. This article gives us a brief overview of how data mining can change our overall healthcare department & improve the health of people.
 
Data mining is useful for extracting information. Data mining is used for commercial and research purposes. In this paper, we mainly discuss the operations of information extraction in various fields of health. In this work, a brief survey is carried out on the applications & uses of data mining in the health issue. Data analysis algorithms are applied in the medical industry, which is useful for finding how old, new & common diseases occur in common people. Various applications are found in this area, such as pharmaceutical & hospital management. The extracting information is helpful for developing an understanding of the operation domain, selection & creation of data, processing & transformation. Data mining has been used in a variety of function such as marketing, customer relationship management, engineering, and medicine analysis.

Data Mining 

Information from large data, as it is also known is the non-trivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from the data. This encompasses a number of technical approaches, such as clustering, data summarization, classification, finding dependency networks, analyzing changes, and detecting anomalies.

Data Mining Processes 

There are various stages in extracting the information i.e.
 
Selection
 
The first stage is selection of data, in which data is collected from different sources
 
Preprocessing
 
The second stage is preprocessing the data that is collected.
 
Transformation
 
The third stage is the transformation of data into a suitable format for further processing
 
Data mining
 
The fourth stage includes data mining where a suitable Data Mining technique is applied to the transformed data in order to extract valuable information.
 
Interpretation & evaluation
 
The data generated from the fourth stage are evaluated. The evaluation helps to discover knowledge from large data that will be useful for decision making.
 
Data Mining Techniques In Healthcare Decision System
Fig 1: Data Mining Process
 

Data Mining Techniques in Health Care 

In data mining, there are mainly two types of learning techniques. The two methods are supervised learning & unsupervised learning.
 
Supervised Learning Techniques
 
Supervised learning involves a person that helps to learn. Learning predicts an outcome based on certain criteria. Examples of such learning are classification.
 
Unsupervised Learning Techniques
 
Unsupervised learning is a technique that does not involve a person. It’s a branch of machine learning that learns from test data. e.g. clustering.
 

Data Mining Models

 
Models are mainly classified into two broad categories,
  • Predictive model
  • Descriptive model
Predictive model
 
Predictive modeling is a process that uses data mining and probability to forecast outcomes. Predictive models are used for results. When results are simulated, then a static model is built.
 
Descriptive model
 
The descriptive model recognizes the designs or relationships in data and discovers the properties of the data studied. For instance, Clustering, Summarization, Association rule, Sequence discovery, etc.
 
Data Mining Techniques In Healthcare Decision System
Fig 2: Data mining Models

Data Mining Tasks

 
Summarization
 
In summarization, the arrangement of information is preoccupied that outcomes into a littler arrangement of information which gives us a general audit of the information.
 
Association
 
Association also has a great impact on the health care industry to discover the relationships between diseases, state of human health and the symptoms of the disease. An integrated approach of us association and classification also improved the capabilities of data mining. By using this rule, effective results are generated.
 
Classification
 
Classification comprises of two footsteps: - 1) Training and 2) Testing. The accuracy of classification model hinges on the degree to which classifying rules are true, which is estimated by test data.
 
Clustering
 
Clustering is different from classification; it does not have predefined classes. Clustering algorithms discover collections of the data such that objects in the same cluster are more identical to each other than other groups.
 
Trend analysis
 
We can watch a great deal of time subordinate information in writing. Such information can be seen as items with a 'period' trait.
 
Regression
 
Relapse is taking in a capacity that can outline information thing to a genuine – esteemed expectation variable. Its a utilized procedure for expectation.
 

Data Mining Applications in the Health Care Sector 

The medical industry today generates large amounts of complex data of patients, hospital resources, disease diagnosis, electronic patient records, medical devices, etc. Larger amounts of information are a key resource to extract the data for cost-savings and decision making. Data mining operations in healthcare can be grouped as the evaluation into broad categories.
 
Diagnosis and prediction of diseases
 
When it comes to social insurance businesses, conclusion and anticipation of ailments is imperative. 
 
Effective treatments
 
By contrasting components like causes, indications, symptoms and cost, information mining is utilized to break down the adequacy of medicines. For instance, one can look at the consequences of medications of various patients who were experiencing a same diseases yet were treated with various medications. Along these lines, we can discover which treatment is compelling regarding the patient's wellbeing and cost.
 
Healthcare management
 
To aid healthcare management, data mining applications can be developed to better identify track chronic disease states, high-risk patients, design appropriate interventions.
 
Customer relationship management
 
While customer relationship management is an approach in managing interactions between commercial organizations—typically banks and retailers—and their customers, it is no less important in a healthcare context.
 
Reduction in insurance fraud and abuse
 
Human services guarantor develops a model to distinguish abnormal examples of cases by patients, doctors, clinics, and so on.
 
Medical Device Industry
 
Medical devices are very important to the healthcare department. Devices help us to make better decisions in our life and also helps us to improve the health of people.

Limitations of Data Mining

 
Although data mining is a very powerful tool, to be successful, data mining needs a skilled user who will supply the correct data. If the user supplies incorrect or minimal amount of information, the output will be affected & the forecast will not be credible.
 

Conclusion

 
In this paper, we have talked about data mining techniques, and applications used in the medical industry. There is a rapid change in the volume of restorative information, data mining methods have high utility in this field. Different assignments are broke down inside the domain of human services associations. This paper investigates distinctive strategies, their points of interest and disadvantages. Maybe, there is no single information mining strategy that can give reliable information from a wide range of social insurance information. In fact, the execution of strategies shifts from one dataset to other datasets. For continued use of these procedures in medicinal services space, there is a need to upgrade and secure wellbeing information sharing among different gatherings. Further, as medical data are not limited to just quantitative data, such as physicians’ records, it is necessary to also explore the use of text mining to expand the scope and nature of healthcare. In this paper, we make a contribution to data mining and healthcare literature and practice. It is hoped that this paper can help all parties involved in healthcare & the benefits of healthcare data mining.