Browser Security Issues

BROWSER SECURITY

The initial design of internet and web protocols assumed an environment where servers, clients and routers cooperate and follow standard protocols except for unintentional errors. However, as the amount of usage increased, concerns about security, fraud and attacks became important. In particular, since currently internet access is widely available, it is very easy for attackers to obtain many client (and even host) connections and addresses and use them to launch multiple attacks, both on the networking itself and on other hosts and clients. Today's attackers are more likely to host their malicious files on the web. They may even update those files constantly using automated tools. When you are surfing the internet, it is easy to visit sites you think are safe but are not. These sites can introduce malware when you click the site itself, when you download a file from the site manually and install it, or worse, when you are conned into believing the site you are visiting is a real site, but in fact is nothing more than a fake used to garner your personal information. From a network security perspective, a browser is essentially a somewhat controlled hole in your organization's firewall that leads to the heart of what it is you are trying to protect.

While browser designers do try to limit what attackers can do from within a browser, much of the security relies far too heavily on the browser user, who often has other interests besides security. There are limits to what a browser developer can compensate for, and browser users will not always accept the constraints of security that a browser establishes.

Open Browser Engineering Issues

Other than the general design of HTTP, HTML and related mechanisms discussed previously, a handful of browser engineering decisions tend to contribute to a disproportional of day-to-day security woes. Understanding these properties is sometimes important for properly assessing the likelihood and maximum impact of security breaches and hence determining the safety of user data. Some of the pivotal, open-ended issues include:

  • Relatively unsafe core programming languages: C++ is used for a majority of code in Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Opera, and Chrome; C is used in certain high-performance or low-level areas, such as image manipulation libraries. The choice of C and C++ means that browsers are regularly plagued by memory management and integer overflow problems, despite considerable ongoing audit efforts.
  • No security compartmentalization: once control of the process is seized due to common implementation flaws, most browsers provide essentially unconstrained access to the user context they are running in. This means that browser bugs, historically, very common, easily lead to total system integrity loss.
  • Inconsistent and haphazard data storage practices: browsers use a mix of random storage methods to keep temporary files, downloads, configuration data, and sensitive records such as passwords, browsing history, saved cookies, or cache entries. These methods include system registry, database container files, drop-off directories, text-based configs (CSV, INI, tab-delimited, XML), and proprietary binary files. The data may be stored in user home directories, system-wide temporary directories, or global program installation folders. Controlling the permissions on all these resources and manipulating them securely is relatively difficult, contributing to many problems, particularly in multi-user systems, or when multiple browsers are used by the same user.
  • Web technologies are used in browser chrome: JavaScript, HTML, and XML are all used to a varying degree to implement some browser internals and various diagnostic and error pages in most browsers. This choice contributes to an elevated risk of HTML injection flaws that permit web content to gain elevated chrome privileges, which, depending on the browser, may carry the permission to read or write files, access arbitrary sites on the Internet, or alter browser settings. The problem is particularly pronounced for Firefox, that implements much of its user interface in this manner.
  • Inconsistent and overly complex security UIs: a vast majority of browsers employ highly inconsistent UI elements and security messaging, including several styles of modal prompts, interstitials, icons, color codes, and messages that pop-up either on the bottom or on the top of the document window. Usability studies consistently show that at least some of these features are easily misidentified, misunderstood, or trivial to spoof (this is particularly the case for interstitials and notification bars that are not anchored in browser UI). Although a gradual improvement may be observed in certain aspects, further coordinated work in this area seems to be necessary.

Phishing Techniques

  • Link manipulation : Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an e-mail (and the spoofed website it leads to) appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of sub domains are common tricks used by phishers.
  • Filter evasion: Phishers have used images instead of text to make it harder for anti phishing filters to detect text commonly used in phishing e-mails.
  • Phone phishing: Not all phishing attacks require a fake website. Messages that claimed to be from a bank told users to dial a phone number regarding problems with their bank accounts. Once the phone number (owned by the phisher, and provided by a Voice over IP service) was dialed, prompts told users to enter their account numbers and PIN. Vishing (voice phishing) sometimes uses fake caller-ID data to provide the appearance that calls come from a trusted organization.
  • Website forgery: Once a victim visits the phishing website the deception is not over. Some phishing scams use JavaScript commands to alter the address bar. This is done either by placing a picture of a legitimate URL over the address bar, or by closing the original address bar and opening a new one with the legitimate URL.