HTML For Beginners: Part 2

Introduction

 
In my "HTML For Beginners: Part 1" I provided an introduction to HTML and explained HTML Text Formatting elements.
 
In this, the part second of the HTML beginners series, we will cover the following topics:
  • <img> element in html
  • src, alt and title attributes of img element
  • Width and Height for an image
  • Rules for creating an image for a webpage
  • <a> (anchor tag)
  • Absolute and Relative linking
  • link to an email
  • How to open links in a new tab or window
  • Links within a single page

Images

 
Images imply many things. If we read the description it takes too much time and most people don't like to read such a long description so If proper images exist on a webpage then it can say many things about the documents, so images are very useful. Some of the things you should always remember when inserting an image into an HTML document are as in the following.
  • Images should be proper and relevant to the document.
  • It should be informative to help visitors become familiar with the document, without reading the document.
  • It should be properly formatted.
  • The image extension should be correct.

Where to store website images

 
If you are creating a website then it is a very good practice to keep all the images in a folder and that folder should be inside your website folder. If you have many images then in that images folder you create some sub-folders as categories.
 
How to add Images to an HTML document
 
HTML uses an <img> tag to add an image to a webpage. A <img> tag is an empty element, in other words, it does not have a closing tag. An HTML image tag always contains an "src" attribute.
 
Src
: This attribute tells the browser where the image is. In other words, the src attribute contains the path of the image or URL of the image that will point to the images that you want to be in your HTML document.
 
Example
 
 
Output
 
 
alt: The alt attribute specifies an alternate text for an image if the images cannot be displayed. If a user cannot view an image then the alt attribute provides a piece of alternate information for any image. The alt attribute text will be shown when:
  • A slow internet connection is used by the visitor.
  • When an error exists in the src attribute.
  • The image is no longer available or is deleted from that specific path.
  • If the user is using screen reader software.
     
    Example
  1. <img src="images/MVPAward.jpg" alt="MVP Award" width="200" />  
Output

I have deleted my image from the images folder and the output will be as in the following:
 
 
title: To create a tooltip for an image, we can use the title attribute with the image. The title text will be shown only if the mouse hovers over the image.
 
Example
  1. <img src="images/MVPAward.jpg" alt="MVP Award" title="Getting MVP (Most Valuable Professional) Award From Mahesh Chand Sir"/> 
Output
 
 
Height and Width attributes: Images can take a longer time to load than the rest of the document so if you specify the size of the image then the browser will render the rest of the content of the page and will not take long to load.
  • Height: By using this attribute you can specify the height of the image.
  • Width: By using this attribute you can specify the width of the image. 
Example
  1. <img src="images/MVPAward.jpg" alt="MVP Award" title="Getting MVP (Most Valuable Professional) Award From Mahesh Chand Sir" height="200" width="300"/>  
Rules for creating Images
 
 
 
Links in HTML Document: Links are a very good feature of an HTML document because links allow you to move from one page to another page or another website or on the same page. Links enable browsing or surfing on websites.
 
For links we will cover the following topics:
  • Link from one website to another website.
  • Linking in the pages within the same website.
  • Email Link.
  • Links that will open a new browser window and tab.
  • Link one section to another section on the same page. 
By including an <a> (Anchor) element, you can place a link into the HTML document. And when the visitor clicks that link he will be moved from that location to the other location. One of the most important attributes of the <a> element is href. href stands for Hypertext REFerence. It specifies the link's destination.
 
By default, a link will be shown as follows in all browsers.
  • Unvisited Links: Underlined and color will be Blue.
  • Active Link (when we mouse down on the link): Underlined and the color will be Red.
  • Visited Link: Underlined and the color will be Purple.
To understand this please see the following animation:
 
 
Link from one website to another website: To link from one website to another website just use a URL as a value of the href attribute. If you provide the complete URL to the href then this type of linking is called absolute linking. A link from one website to another website will always be absolute linking.
 
Example
  1. <a href="http://www.c-sharpcorner.com/">C-sharp Corner</a>   
Output
 
 
Linking in the pages within the same website: To link one page to another page of the same website you will just provide the name of the page you want to jump to, you will not provide the complete path of the URL. Linking within the same website pages are called Relative Linking.
 
Example: I have created 2 pages, page1.html, and page2.html. I have written the following code in page1.html and page2.html.
 
page1.html Code
  1. <html>  
  2.   <head>  
  3.     <title>Links in HTML</title>  
  4.   </head>  
  5.   <body>  
  6.     <a href="page2.html">Go to Page 2</a>  
  7.   </body>  
  8. </html>  
Page2.html Code
  1. <html>  
  2.   <head>  
  3.     <title>Links in HTML</title>  
  4.   </head>  
  5.   <body>  
  6.     <a href="page1.html">Go to Page 1</a>  
  7.   </body>  
  8. </html>  
Output: After writing the preceding code in page1.html and page2.html. You will get the following output:
 
 
Relative Linking Types: As I said, linking within the same website is called relative linking where we do not provide the complete URL of the webpage and it just provides the name of the page. But on a website, there might be many pages and those pages can be inside the folders so to link from one folder to another folder's webpage the link will be in various styles. I am showing some styles using the following table:
 
Relative Linking Type Example
Same Folder
The linking page is in the same folder so use the name of the page directly.
 
<a href="Home.html">Home</a>
Child Folder
If you want to link to an HTML page in a child folder then first provide the name of the folder followed by a forward slash then provide the file name.
 
<a href="articles/article.html"></a>
Grandchild Folder
 
Use the following rules for a grandchild folder:
 
• First, provide the child folder name.
• Followed by a forward slash.
• Provide the grandchild folder name.
• Followed by a forward slash again.
• Provide the file name.
 
<a href="articles/HTML/intro.html">Intro</a>
Parent Folder
Use the following rule for a parent folder's page.
• Use ../ to indicate the folder above the current one.
 
<a href="../index.html">Index</a>
Grandparent Folder
Use the following for a grandparent folder's page.
<a href="../../index.html"></a>
 
Email Link: To create a link that starts the user's email program with an address of the email that you specify in the href attribute you must specify the "emailto:" protocol followed by the mail id of where you want to send the mail to.
 
Example
  1. <a href="mailto:contact@sourabhsomani.com">Click Here to Email me </a>  
Output
 
 
Open link in another tab/window of web browser: The target attribute specifies where to open the linked document. By default the browser opens a link in the same frame because the default target value is "_self" but if you want to open it in a new tab or new window then set the value to "_blank"  for the target attribute.
 
Example
  1. <a href="http://www.c-sharpcorner.com" target="_blank">C# Corner</a>  
Output
 
 
Link one section to another section on the same page: If your page is too long, then you can link to a corresponding section lower down (or above) and you can specify the link in the following section so we can return to the top. To specify the link on the same page we need to first declare the id of where we will go and then we can only jump from one section to another section.  And the same page we will use a Pound Symbol (#) then followed by the id name of where we want to link to as the value of the href attribute.
 
Example
  1. <html>  
  2.   <head>  
  3.     <title>Same Page Linking</title>  
  4.   </head>  
  5.   <body>  
  6.     <h1 id="top"><a href="#bottom">Goto bottom</a>   
  7.   
  8. </h1>  
  9.      <p>This is the top of the page</p>  
  10. <br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><  
  11.   
  12. br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><b  
  13.   
  14. r><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>  
  15.   
  16.     <h1 id="bottom"><a href="#top">Goto top</a>  </h1>
  17.      <p>This is the bottom of the page</p>  
  18.   </body>  
  19. </html>  
Output
 
 

Summary

  1. An <img> tag is used to add an image.
  2. With the <img> element the src attribute is required for specifying the source of the image.
  3. Alt is used to describe the image content for when the image does not load for any reason, alt attribute contents shows.
  4. The title attribute shows a tooltip for the image.
  5. 3 rules are used to create an image for a webpage; they are the right format, the right size, and the correct resolution. 
  6. A <a> tag is used to create a link in the HTML.
  7. The href attribute is used with a <a> tag to specify the address of the webpage. 
  8. Two types of links are possible to link to a page, absolute linking and relative linking.
  9. emailto is used when you create an email link.
     
  10. The id attribute is used when we want to link within the page.
The next part of this series explains:
  • Lists
  • Tables