Strategy Pattern

The Strategy Pattern is a GOF (Gang of Four) behavioral pattern where the intent is to "define a family of algorithms, encapsulate each one, and make them interchangeable".

This pattern gives the client the flexibility to solve the same problem using different algorithms. The client can switch to any algorithm.

In the code below, StrategyContext class accepts the SortType parameter which gives the client the flexibility to select the algorithm without knowing the internal implementation. Each algorithm is implemented as a separate class and its contract is defined by an interface. Any new algorithm to be introduced has to obey the contract defined by the interface.

Source Code

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
namespace DesignPatterns
{
    // Interface with alogorithm definition
    public interface ISort
    {
        void Sort();
    }

    // Class encapsulating algorithm
    public class BubbleSort : ISort
    {
        #region ISort Members
        public void Sort()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Bubble Sort");
        }
        #endregion
    }

    public class ShellSort : ISort
    {
        #region ISort Members
        public void Sort()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Shell Sort");
        }
        #endregion
    }

 
    // Context class for clients to interact and call appropriate
    // strategy algorithm
    public class StrategyContext
    {
        private ISort sortType;
        public StrategyContext()
        {
        }
        public StrategyContext(ISort _sortType)
        {
            sortType = _sortType;
        }
        public ISort SortType
        {
            get { return sortType; }
            set { sortType = value; }
        }
        // Execute the algorithm
        public void PerformAction()
        {
            if (sortType != null)
                sortType.Sort();
            else
            {
                throw new Exception("Sort type not defined for the Context");
            }
        }
    }
 
    /// <summary>
    /// Client which calls the algorithm
    /// </summary>
    public class Client
    {
        static void Main()
        {
            StrategyContext context = new StrategyContext(new BubbleSort());
            context.PerformAction();
            context = new StrategyContext();
            ShellSort shellSort = new ShellSort();
            context.SortType = shellSort;
            context.PerformAction();
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }
}

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