Functions In SQL Server

Introduction

 
In this article, we will learn about SQL Server Functions with examples.
 

SQL Server Functions

 
SQL Server Functions are useful objects in SQL Server databases. A SQL Server function is a code snippet that can be executed on a SQL Server. In this article, I will explain how to create and use a function in SQL Server.
 
In T-SQL, a function is considered an object. Here are some of the rules when creating functions in SQL Server.
  1. A function must have a name and a function name can never start with a special character such as @, $, #, and so on.
  2. Functions only work with select statements.
  3. Functions can be used anywhere in SQL, like AVG, COUNT, SUM, MIN, DATE and so on with select statements.
  4. Functions compile every time.
  5. Functions must return a value or result.
  6. Functions only work with input parameters.
  7. Try and catch statements are not used in functions.

SQL Server Function Types

 
SQL Server supports two types of functions - user-defined and system.
  1. User-Defined function: User-defined functions are create by a user.
     
  2. System Defined Function: System functions are built-in database functions. 
SQL Server database
 
Before we create and use functions, let's start with a new table. 
 
Create a table in your database with some records. Here is my table.
 
Create One Table
 

User-Defined Functions

 
SQL Server supports two types of user-defined functions:
  1. Table-Valued Functions
  2. Scalar Valued Functions

Table-Valued Functions

 
In this type of function, we select a table data using a user-created function. A function is created using the Create function SQL command. The following query creates a new user-defined function.
  1. Create function Fun_EmployeeInformation()      
  2. returns table       
  3. as      
  4. return(select * from Employee  )     
Table Valued Function
 
Now see a newly created function in the database.
 
see crated function in databas
 
Now get Employee table information with the created function Fun_EmployeeInformation() using a select statement.
 
Getting Employee Table Information
 

Scalar function

 
Now we are getting an Employee table with two different data joined and displayed in a single column data row. Here create a two-column join function as in the following:
  1. create function fun_JoinEmpColumnInfo  
  2. (  
  3.    @EmpContact nchar(15),  
  4.    @EmpEmail nvarchar(50),  
  5.    @EmpCity varchar(30)  
  6. )  
  7. returns nvarchar(100)  
  8. as  
  9. begin return(select @EmpContact+ ' ' +@EmpEmail + ' ' + @EmpCity)  
  10. end  
Scalar function
 
Now see a create a scalar function in the database.
 
database
 
Now the created scalar function is used for displaying Employee info in one column data row as in the following:
 
created scalar function
 

System function

 
This function is used for inserting records and is a system built-in function.
 
System function
 
Here provide some Aggregate basic function examples with our Employee Table.
 
This function operates on employee salary records.
 
Getting the highest salary record with the max() function as in the following.
 

Command

  1. select max(salary) as Salary from employee  
select max
 
Getting the lowest salary record with the min() function as in the following.
 
Command
  1. select min(salary) as Salary from employee  
select min
 
Count the total salary with the sum() function as in the following.
 
Command
  1. select sum(salary) as Salary from employee  
select sum
 
We are showing a basic example of how to use a system function. Many more functions are available in the database.
 
Now we will show one more example of how to store data using a function and display that stored data using a SQL print command.
  1. create function fun_PrintNumber()  
  2. returns decimal(7,2)  
  3. as  
  4. begin  
  5.     return 1000.13  
  6. end  
create function
 
Now call a function and display the stored record using the print command.
  1. print dbo.fun_PrintNumber()  
call a function
 
Now one more mathematical function to create a two-number addition.
  1. CREATE FUNCTION Fun_Addition(@Num1 Decimal(7,2),  
  2.                          @Num2 Decimal(7,2))  
  3. RETURNS Decimal(7,2)  
  4. Begin  
  5.     DECLARE @Result Decimal(7,2)  
  6.     SET @Result = @Num1 + @Num2  
  7.     RETURN @Result  
  8. end   
mathematical function
 
Now call an additional function as in the following:
  1. print dbo.Fun_Addition(12,13)  
addition function
 
Watch here a full video for more information about MS SQL Functions, Syntaxes, Tips & Tricks.
 
 

Summary

 
In this article, I explained functions in SQL Server. I hope you understand about functions and how they work in SQL Server databases.