Command Pattern Undo/Redo in F#

Introduction

This article explains the Undoable commands such as the actions Undo and Redo commands in F# console applications. Undo and Redo are part of the command patterns that ensures that every object receives its own commands and provides a decoupling between sender and receiver.

Undo and Redo

The Undo command changes the current state to an older state. Undo reverses the last action you performed and Redo undoes the last Undo action.

Undo and Redo Mechanism

At a minimum, an undo/redo mechanism should provide the ability to:

  • Unexecute (undo) the last action performed.
  • Reexecute (redo) the last undone action.
  • Functions performed to reverse the action of an earlier action.

Undo Implementation

  • Determine whether the UndoStack is empty. If empty, then return otherwise proceed.
  • Then "pop" an command object from the UndoStack.
  • Then "push" this command to the RedoStack.
  • Then invoke the Execute method of the command object.

Redo Implementation

  • Determine whether the RedoStack is empty. If empty, then return otherwise proceed.
  • Then "pop" a Command object from the RedoStack.
  • Then "push" this command to the UndoStack.
  • Then invoke the execute method of the command object.

Command Object

Command objects act as receivers and execute requested functionality through the Execute method. The class named "Document" that contains two stacks. The first one is for Undo operations and the second one is for Redo operations.

Now  I will show you how to perform the Undo and Redo operations in a Console Application. Use the following procedure to create the sample.

Step 1:

Open Visual Studio then select "Create New Project" --> "F# Console Application".

CreateApplication

Step 2:

Now go to the Solution Explorer to the right side of the application. Right-click on "References" and select "Add references".

SelectReferences

 



AddReferences

Step 3:

After selecting "Add References", in the framework template you need to select "System" and click on "Ok".

ImportNamespaces

Step 4:

Use the following code for the Command Pattern Undo/Redo operations in a console application.

open System

open System.Collections.Generic

 

[<AbstractClass>]

type UndoableCommand(description:string) = 

    member this.Description = description

    abstract Execute : unit->unit

    abstract Undo : unit->unit

//Property changes by the class via a ref

type PropertyChangedUndoableCommand<'a>(description, fieldRef, newValue:'a) =

    inherit UndoableCommand(description) 

    let oldValue = !fieldRef

    override this.Execute() = fieldRef:=newValue

    override this.Undo() = fieldRef:=oldValue

type DelegateUndoableCommand(description, doAction, undoAction) = 

    inherit UndoableCommand(description)

    override this.Execute() = doAction()

    override this.Undo() = undoAction()

//Document contains an example undo/redo stack

type Document() =

    let undoStack = Stack()

    let redoStack = Stack()

    let execute (command : UndoableCommand) =

        redoStack.Clear()

        undoStack.Push(command)

        command.Execute()

//Undo Implementation

    let undo() = 

        if undoStack.Count > 0 then

            let command = undoStack.Pop()

            redoStack.Push(command)

            command.Undo()

 //Redo Implementation           

    let redo() = 

        if redoStack.Count> 0 then

            let command = redoStack.Pop()

            undoStack.Push(command)

            command.Execute()

    member this.ExecuteCommand command = execute command

    member this.Undo() = undo()

    member this.Redo() = redo()

    member this.CanUndo = undoStack.Count > 0

    member this.CanRedo = redoStack.Count > 0

type SomeObject(document:Document) = 

    let undovalue = ref 50//initial value is 50

    member this.UndoableProperty with get() = !undovalue

                                 and set(value) =

                                    let command = PropertyChangedUndoableCommand("Changed", undovalue, value)

                                    document.ExecuteCommand(command)

 //Document object hold "do" and "Undone" values                           

let doc = Document()

let so = SomeObject(doc)

printf "Initial Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty

so.UndoableProperty <- 100

printf "Updated Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

so.UndoableProperty <- 1000

printf "Updated Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Undo()

printf "Undo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Undo()

printf "Undo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Undo()

printf "Undo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Undo()

printf "Undo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Redo()

printf "Redo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Redo()

printf "Redo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

doc.Redo()

printf "Redo Value %d\n\n" so.UndoableProperty 

System.Console.ReadLine()|>ignore

Output

Debug the application by pressiing F5 to execute the console application. After debugging the application the output will be as in the following figure:

AfterDebug

Summary

In this article you saw how to use Undo and Redo operations in console applications. Undo and Redo are generally a part of the Command Pattern.

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