Implementing The Saga Pattern with Rebus and RabbitMQ


In the realm of distributed systems and microservices architecture, ensuring consistency across multiple operations can be challenging. The Saga pattern comes to the rescue by orchestrating a sequence of distributed transactions to maintain data consistency without relying on a two-phase commit protocol. In this article, we'll delve into implementing the Saga pattern using Rebus, a versatile .NET library for messaging, in conjunction with RabbitMQ, a powerful message broker.

What is Saga Pattern?

At its core, the Saga pattern manages a sequence of local transactions, where each step within the saga represents a transaction involving different services or components. If any step fails, compensating actions are triggered to maintain overall consistency. Sagas ensure that either all operations within the sequence succeed or, in the case of failure, the system reverts to a consistent state by executing compensating actions.

Using Rebus and RabbitMQ

Setting Up Rebus and RabbitMQ

To begin, install the necessary packages using NuGet.

Install-Package Rebus
Install-Package Rebus.RabbitMQ

Next, configure Rebus and RabbitMQ:

var configurer = Configure.With(...)
    .Transport(t => t.UseRabbitMq("amqp://localhost", "saga-example"))

Implementing a Saga

Let's consider a hypothetical e-commerce scenario where a customer places an order consisting of multiple steps: reserve items, charge payment, and ship items. We'll implement a saga to manage these operations.

public class OrderSagaData
    public Guid OrderId { get; set; }
    public bool ItemsReserved { get; set; }
    public bool PaymentCharged { get; set; }
    public bool ItemsShipped { get; set; }

public class OrderSaga : Saga<OrderSagaData>,
    // Saga implementation here

Handling Messages in the Saga

Each message represents a step in the saga. For instance, the PlaceOrder message initiates the saga.

public class PlaceOrder
    public Guid OrderId { get; set; }
    public List<Item> Items { get; set; }

public async Task Handle(PlaceOrder message)
    Data.OrderId = message.OrderId;
    // Reserve items logic
    Bus.Send(new ReserveItems { OrderId = message.OrderId, Items = message. Items });

Similarly, other messages like ReserveItems, ChargePayment, and ShipItems are handled within the saga, managing the respective operations and updating saga data accordingly.

Compensating Actions

Should any step fail, compensating actions ensure the system maintains consistency. For instance, if charging payment fails, a compensating action might be implemented as follows.

public async Task Handle(ChargePayment message)
    // Charge payment logic
    if (paymentFailed)
        // Execute compensating action
        Bus.Send(new CancelOrder { OrderId = Data.OrderId });


Implementing the Saga pattern using Rebus and RabbitMQ offers a powerful way to manage distributed transactions and maintain data consistency in a microservices architecture. By orchestrating a sequence of steps and incorporating compensating actions, sagas ensure system integrity despite failures within the distributed environment.