Introduction to Types in TypeScript


TypeScript, an open-source language, is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript. It adds optional static typing and class-based object-oriented programming to the language. Some of the key features it provides are type support and code encapsulation.

Overview of the relation between TypeScript and JavaScript

As in the above figure, MathCalculator.ts is a TypeScript file that is compiled by tsc, the TypeScript compiler, to the MathCalculator.js file. Then one can use this MathCalculator.js in their application.

OOPS Features of TypeScript

  1. Supports Key JavaScript Features
  2. Provides static typing
  3. Supports constructors, properties and functions
  4. Define Interfaces
  5. Encapsulation through classes and modules
  6. Support lambdas => 

TypeScript Annotations

Primitive Types
Basic primitive types are number, bool, string, null and undefined.
Object Types
Object literals
Here functions can be used in the following two ways:
  1. Assigning the function directly
  2. Defining a type as a function and then assign a function
Arrow function expressions
Equivalent JavaScript code
Dynamic and Static typing 
Static typing is optional here
Only dynamic typing is supported
Type safety is checked at compile time
Type safety is checked at run time


In this article, we have seen that TypeScript *.ts files are compiled to *.js files by the TypeScript compiler (tsc). Also, we have seen annotations and various object types available in TypeScript. In future articles, we will explore classes, interfaces, and modules.

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