Types Of SQL Statements With Examples

In this blog, you will learn about the basic types of SQL statements with examples.

What is SQL?

 
SQL stands for Structured Query Language, as it is the special purpose domain specific language for querying data in Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).
 
Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle etc. use SQL for querying with slight syntax differences.
 
SQL Language 
 
Read More > What is SQL
 

Types of SQL Statements

 
SQL statements are categorized into four different type of statements, which are
  1. DML (DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE)
  2. DDL (DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE)
  3. DCL (DATA CONTROL LANGUAGE)
  4. TCL (TRANSACTION CONTROL LANGUAGE)
Let's see one by one.
 
SQL Language 
 

DML

 
In Data Manipulation Language(DML), we have four different SQL statements, Select, Insert, Update, and Delete. 
 
SELECT Statement

Select statement is used to select records from the table, with or without a condition.

Example:
 
select * from student – Gets all records of student table.

Select * from student where rank>5 - Gets records with the condition where students' rank is greater than 5.

 
INSERT

Insert statement is used to insert a set of values into database table. Insert statement it used with Values. 

Example: Insert Into Student (Rank, StudentName, Mark) Values(1,’Kumar’,450)

UPDATE

Update statement is used to update existing values in atable, which is based on some condition.

Example: update student set StudentName=’Manoj’ where StudentName=’Kumar’

The query given above will update the studentName from Manoj to Kumar where student Name Kumar.

Read more, Insert and Update in SQL Server
 
DELETE

Delete statement is used to delete the existing record in the table, which is based on some condition.

Example: Delete from Student where StudentName=’Manoj’

The query given above will delete records which has StudentName as Manoj.

DDL

 
In Data Definition Language (DDL), we have three different SQL statements.
 
CREATE

Create statement is used to create a new table in an existing database. CREATE statement is also used to create other database object such as a stored procedure, function etc.

Example: Create Table Student (Rank Int,StudentName varchar(50),Mark Float)

ALTER

Alter statement can add a column, modify a column, drop a column, rename a column or rename a table.

Example: Alter Table Student Add (StudentAddress varchar (100))

 
DROP

SQL DROP TABLE statement is used to remove a table definition and all the data, indexes, triggers, constraints and permission specifications for the table.

Example: Drop Student

 
TRUNCATE

TRUNCATE SQL query removes all rows from a table, without logging the individual row deletions.

Example: Truncate Table Table_Name
 
Read more, Difference Between Truncate, Delete, and Drop in SQL Server

DCL

 
In Data Control Language(DCL), it defines the control over the data in the database. We have two different commands, which are
 
GRANT

Grant is allowed to do the specified user to the specified tasks.

Syntax

GRANT privilege_name
ON object_name
TO {user_name |PUBLIC |role_name}
[WITH GRANT OPTION];

 

REVOKE

It is used to cancel previously granted or denied permissions.

Syntax

REVOKE privilege_name
ON object_name
FROM {user_name |PUBLIC |role_name}

Read more, Grant and Revoke In SQL

TCL

 
In Transaction Control Language (TCL), the commands are used to manage the transactions in the database. These are used to manage the changes made by DML statements. It also allows the statements to be grouped together into logical transactions.
 
COMMIT

Commit command is used to permanently save any transaction into the database.

Syntax Commit;

Read more, Commit and Rollback Comands in SQL Server
 
ROLLBACK

Rollback command is used to restore the database for the last committed state. It’s also used with save point to jump to the save point.

Syntax

Rollback to save point name

Read more, Commit and Rollback in SQL Server
 
SAVEPOINT

Save point command is used to temporarily save a transaction, so that you can roll back to that point whenever necessary.

Syntax

savepointsavepoint-name;

Read more, What is the usage of savepoints
 
These are the different types of statements in SQL language. I hope, this will be helpful for the readers. Thanks for reading.