Internet of Things: Components, Boards and Jumper Wires

Introduction

 
You've learned everything from IoT, it's software, and its building blocks until now. The next step is to think about IoT technology's hardware component. The IoT is an incredibly wide area, with thousands of modules, boards, and wires being used or created.
 
There is no possibility to cover all IoT hardware in the chapter, but I will mention some of them in order to give you an idea.

It is important to understand the difference between microcontrollers and on-board devices to better understand the concept and get the best from the chapter.
 

Microcontroller vs. System on Board

 
Microcontrollers are compact computers with processors, memory, and peripherals, but they are very compact and can perform a limited task whereas System on Board is full-fledged computers that can be used for a lot of activities, like playing games, playing music, watching HD videos, performing complex computing, and installing different types of apps and software, etc.
 

IoT Components

 
Components
 
So, I am going to explain all those devices, along with peripherals used with IoT devices. But, before that, I will explain some areas where we can use IoT.
 
IoT Usage Example
 
Control electronic devices: We can control any electronic device using Pi. If you are using Windows 10 IOT Core Insider for Raspberry Pi 3, you will find a sample program Blinky, already created, which can be used to set and control the blinking of a LED light. You can also control other electronic devices, like DC fans, etc.
 
Control electrical devices: You can control your electrical devices also, using a relay circuit and connecting through Pi.
 
Real-world implantations
 
The above examples are simple which can be done very easily by a few lines of codes. But, real implementations start when we use a combination of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, infrared rays, Azure data posting stream analytics, and many more things with the help of sensors. So, we can say that sensors play a vital role in IoT implementations. We can use a wide range of sensors with IoT. Some real-world implementations can be done like:
 
Smart Parking, Smart Lighting, Smart Roads, Smart Fridge, Smart AC, Smart House, Smart Power Grid, Smart Product Management, Smart Animal Farming, Smart Agriculture, Smart Storage Tank, track your activity, Smart Retail, Smart Supply Chain, Connected Cars, Smart Manufacturing, and many more smart things around the world.
 
The basic purpose of IoT is connecting the devices through the internet. Those devices can be anything, e.g., mobile phones, camera, music system, audio player, video player, smartwatch, wall mounted watch, fans, calendar, hospitals, home, hotel, restaurant, healthcare devices, bus, car, cycle, TV/monitor, chair, beds, water bottles, purifiers, gas cylinders, traffic signals, printer, scanner, 3D printer, medical appliances, and many more things.
 
I am going to give you a simple example of how these things can be implemented very easily. Let’s take an example of searching a lost Key Chain.
 
Searching your lost key chain: Suppose you lost your key in the car parking lot or inside the shopping mall, then, it is very hard to find it. But, if your key chain is having Wi-Fi, you can search it easily because when you reach a Wi-Fi coverage area, your smartphone will automatically show you that the particular Wi-Fi network is available. So, you can search in that specific area. Or suppose, if your Key chain is having some preloaded music, you can play that and find it within a second.
 
It can also be implemented through infrared rays. We can use different types of sensors with a key chain that can send data to a particular data center and we can find it based on the analytics of those data. It’s a very simple example and IoT can be implemented on thousands of different scenarios, which depends upon our requirements and thinking. Let’s have a look at some IoT boards.
 
Electronic Components
  1. RED LED
  2. GREEN LED
  3. Resistors
  4. Capacitor
  5. Push-button
  6. Male breakable header strip
  7. Break Away Headers - Straight
Power Options
  1. 5V Power adapter with a micro USB cable
  2. Power Banks
  3. Polymer Lithium-Ion Battery
  4. Flexible 6V 1W Solar Panel
  5. Solar Charger Shield
  6. Voltage Regulator
Micro SD Card
 
8GB/ 16GB /32GB class 10 microSD card with NOOBS pre-installed
 
Note:  For 64 GB, please check the list of supported devices.
 
Other Components
 
Breadboards, ProtoPi NifTee, Raspberry Pi Case, HDMI cables, etc.
 
Other Hardware
 

IoT Boards

 

Raspberry Pi

 
Raspberry Pi is a very low-cost computer of credit card size, by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. The Raspberry Pi Foundation is a registered educational charity in the UK.
 
Features of Raspberry Pi
  1. Low cost: starting from $5
  2. Compact size: credit card sized
  3. Connect your monitor/TV:
    • You can directly connect your Raspberry Pi with your monitor or TV, using HDMI port.
    • If you have an old monitor that doesn’t have HDMI port, then, you can use HDMI to VGA cable for that.
  4. Connect Standard Mouse and Keyboard:
    • If you have a wireless keyboard, you can connect it using Bluetooth.
    • Connect your wired keyboard/ mouse using the USB port.
    • Use USB to PS2 converter cable for connecting your PS2 mouse/keyboard. 
  5. Beneficialfor exploring computing, by people of all ages. We can do a lot of things with it. We can play games, work with spreadsheet software, playHD video, internet surfing, and many more things.
  6. We can use itfor exploring the Internet of Things. We can write programming for it in different types of languages. Being a Microsoft technology developer,I’ll prefer coding in C#, but it also supports C++, Java, Python, NodeJS, Ruby, etc. For IoT, Raspberry Pi 3 can be used in different ways. We can do a lot of things using Pi.
There are 5 models available on the official website of Raspberry pi. Those Models are,
  1. Raspberry Pi Zero
  2. Raspberry Pi 1 Model A+
  3. Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+
  4. Raspberry Pi 2 Model B
  5. Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
I am not going to explain all the devices, but I can put a layout of Raspberry Pi Zero and Raspberry Pi 3 Model B so that you can understand very easily what changes are done and what is the difference between the first Raspberry Pi (Raspberry Pi Zero) and the latest Raspberry Pi (Raspberry Pi 3 Model B)
 

Raspberry Pi Zero

 
Raspberry Pi Zero
 

Raspberry Pi 3

 
Raspberry Pi 3
 
Image Source: www.element14.com
 

IoT Devices from Intel

 
Many of us are familiar with Intel boards and processors for our PC and laptop. We know that Intel is a leading manufacturer of CPU and boards. Intel has developed some boards which can be used for IoT development.
 

Intel® Galileo

 
Intel® Galileo
 
Image Source: https://www.cooking-hacks.com
 
There are different versions of Intel Galileo e.g. Intel Galileo Gen. 1, Intel Galileo Gen. 2, etc. If you are interested in Intel Galileo, you can explore it.
 

Intel Edison

 
Intel Edison
 

Arduino

 
Arduino
 
You can explore a complete list of Arduino boards for the Internet of Things, here.
 

Netduino

 
Netduino is .NET-programmable microcontroller which is available in different models. Some of them are:
  1. netduino (.NET-programmable microcontroller)
  2. netduino Plus (.NET-programmable microcontroller with Ethernet)
  3. netduino 2 (.NET-programmable microcontroller)
  4. netduino Plus 2 (.NET-programmable microcontroller)
  5. netduino 3
  6. netduino 3 Ethernet
  7. netduino 3 Wi-Fi (.NET-programmable microcontroller)
     
    Netduino
The above Image is for netduino 3 Wi-Fi which is the latest version of netduino board.
 

Minnow Board MAX

 
 
Minnow Board MAX
 
 Minnow Board MAX
 

Qualcomm Dragon Board™ 410c

 
board

Jumper Wires

 
We use jumper wires with IoT boards, like Raspberry Pi 3, for connecting devices, so that we can write and execute our code which can be used to pass power and data using GPIO port.
 
Jumper wires come in different categories and styles. Please make your correct selection depending on your requirements.
 

Types of Jumper wire

 
Single wired
  1. Male to Male jumper wire
  2. Male to Female jumper wire
  3. Female to Female jumper wire
24 pins/ 40 pins jumper wires
  1. Male to Male 24 pins/40 pins jumper wire
  2. Male to Female 24 pins/40 pins jumper wire
  3. Female to Female 24 pins/40 pins jumper wire
40 pins jumper wires can also be detached separately and we can use it as separate 40 jumper wires.
 
That is all for this chapter. I hope you enjoyed reading it!
Author
Banketeshvar Narayan
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